Oxford and Vancouver

Last changed: 16 September 2016 - slu.se

Here you find some information on how to refer according to the Oxford and Vancouver reference systems.

Oxford system

The Oxford system uses footnotes at the bottom of the page to provide citations in the text. The running text includes superscripted numbers that refer to the footnotes at the bottom of the page. It is common to include the complete reference in the footnote the first time you cite the source in your text. The next time you cite the same source, however, you can just refer to the author’s name and the page from whence you drew the information.

Reference lists should be in alphabetical order. Here are a couple of good links to more detailed instructions on how to reference according to Oxford:

University of New South Wales

Deakin University 


Vancouver system

The Vancouver system is commonly used in the field of medicine. This system cites sources in the text by assigning them a number in order of appearance in the text. That means that the first source cited is assigned the number 1, which is then placed in parentheses (1). If you refer to the same author later in the text, you simply refer to the same citation number.

The complete reference list is placed in numerical order, as opposed to the alphabetical order used in other systems. If you want to learn more about how to reference and cite according to Vancouver take a look at the following instructions:

Guide to the  Vancouversystemet by Karolinska Institutet library

Monash University



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